Isothiocyanates are some of the most important plant compounds you can get in your diet. In this video I make the most comprehensive case for them that has ever been made. Short attention span? Skip to your favorite topic by clicking one of the time points below. Full timeline below the fold...
00:01:14 - Cancer and mortality
00:19:04 - Aging
00:26:30 - Brain and behavior
00:38:06 - Final recap
00:40:27 - Dose
00:00:34 - Introduction of sulforaphane, a major focus of the video.
00:01:14 - Cruciferous vegetable consumption and reductions in all-cause mortality.
00:02:12 - Prostate cancer risk.
00:02:23 - Bladder cancer risk.
00:02:34 - Lung cancer in smokers risk.
00:02:48 - Breast cancer risk.
00:03:13 - Hypothetical: what if you already have cancer? (interventional)
00:03:35 - Plausible mechanism driving the cancer and mortality associative data.
00:04:38 - Sulforaphane and cancer.
00:05:32 - Animal evidence showing strong effect of broccoli sprout extract on bladder tumor development in rats.
00:06:06 - Effect of direct supplementation of sulforaphane in prostate cancer patients.
00:07:09 - Bioaccumulation of isothiocyanate metabolites in actual breast tissue.
00:08:32 - Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells.
00:08:53 - History lesson: brassicas were established as having health properties even in ancient Rome.
00:09:16 - Sulforaphane's ability to enhance carcinogen excretion (benzene, acrolein).
00:09:51 - NRF2 as a genetic switch via antioxidant response elements.
00:10:10 - How NRF2 activation enhances carcinogen excretion via glutathione-S-conjugates.
00:10:34 - Brussels sprouts increase glutathione-S-transferase and reduce DNA damage.
00:11:20 - Broccoli sprout drink increases benzene excretion by 61%.
00:13:31 - Broccoli sprout homogenate increases antioxidant enzymes in the upper airway.
00:15:45 - Cruciferous vegetable consumption and heart disease mortality.
00:16:55 - Broccoli sprout powder improves blood lipids and overall heart disease risk in type 2 diabetics.
00:19:04 - Beginning of aging section.
00:19:21 - Sulforaphane-enriched diet enhances lifespan of beetles from 15 to 30% (in certain conditions).
00:20:34 - Importance of low inflammation for longevity.
00:22:05 - Cruciferous vegetables and broccoli sprout powder seem to reduce a wide variety of inflammatory markers in humans.
00:23:40 - Mid-video recap: cancer, aging sections
00:24:14 - Mouse studies suggest sulforaphane might improve adaptive immune function in old age.
00:25:18 - Sulforaphane improved hair growth in a mouse model of balding. Picture at 00:26:10.
00:26:30 - Beginning of brain and behavior section.
00:27:18 - Effect of broccoli sprout extract on autism.
00:27:48 - Effect of glucoraphanin on schizophrenia.
00:28:17 - Start of depression discussion (plausible mechanism and studies).
00:31:21 - Mouse study using 10 different models of stress-induced depression show sulforaphane similarly effective as fluoxetine (prozac).
00:32:00 - Study shows direct ingestion of glucoraphanin in mice is similarly effective at preventing depression from social defeat stress model.
00:33:01 - Beginning of neurodegeneration section.
00:33:30 - Sulforaphane and Alzheimer's disease.
00:33:44 - Sulforaphane and Parkinson's disease.
00:33:51 - Sulforaphane and Hungtington's disease.
00:34:13 - Sulforaphane increases heat shock proteins.
00:34:43 - Beginning of traumatic brain injury section.
00:35:01 - Sulforaphane injected immediately after TBI improves memory (mouse study).
00:35:55 - Sulforaphane and neuronal plasticity.
00:36:32 - Sulforaphane improves learning in model of type II diabetes in mice.
00:37:19 - Sulforaphane and duchenne muscular dystrophy.
00:37:44 - Myostatin inhibition in muscle satellite cells (in vitro).
00:38:06 - Late-video recap: mortality and cancer, DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation, benzene excretion, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, effects on the brain (depression, autism, schizophrenia, neurodegeneration), NRF2 pathway.
00:40:27 - Thoughts on figuring out a dose of broccoli sprouts or sulforaphane.
00:41:01 - Anecdotes on sprouting at home.
00:43:14 - On cooking temperatures and sulforaphane activity.
00:43:45 - Gut bacteria conversion of sulforaphane from glucoraphanin.
00:44:24 - Supplements work better when combined with active myrosinase from vegetables.
00:44:56 - Cooking techniques and cruciferous vegetables.
00:46:06 - Isothiocyanates as goitrogens.